Tooth agenesis or hypodontia is one of the most common anomalies of the human dentition, characterized by the developmental absence of one or more teeth.
Besides an unfavorable appearance, patients with missing teeth may suffer from malocclusion, periodontal damage, insufficient alveolar bone growth, reduced chewing ability, inarticulate pronunciation and other problems.
Many studies have reported that the prevalence of congenital absence of permanent teeth varies from 3% to 11% among European and Asian populations. Although specifically it describes the absence of one to six teeth excluding third molars. Oligodontia refers to the absence of more than six teeth, excluding third molars, while anodontia represents the absence of all teeth.
Dental agenesis affects more frequently the permanent rather than the primary dentition. Third molars are the most commonly absent teeth in the dentition
The restoration of spacing that results from the agenesis of missing teeth is frequently complicated by the remaining present teeth, which are in unfavourable positions. Agenesis treatment is an interdisciplinary approach with a great relationship between the pedodontist, the orthodontist and the prosthodontist.
The decision on whether the treatment plan involves space closure or opening of the spaces of the missing tooth depends on factors such as age of the patient; degree of inherent crowding; state of the deciduous teeth; type of malocclusion; and the circumstances of the patient (finances, attitude towards treatment, etc.).
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